Arterial hypertension is a widespread disease in the world. In Russia, over 40% of men and women suffer from arterial hypertension. Mortality from complications of arterial hypertension is increasing. Thus, in Russia, morbidity and mortality from such a formidable complication of arterial hypertension as cerebral stroke remain one of the highest in the world. At the same time, the awareness of our patients about the symptoms and complications of this disease and sustagen is insufficient for its early detection.
Insufficient awareness of arterial hypertension leads to an underestimation of the severity of this disease, to low referral to doctors for help at an early stage of the disease, when serious complications can still be avoided. All this together, unfortunately, leads to insufficiently effective treatment: it is possible to normalize the level of blood pressure only in 17% of women suffering from this disease, and in men this figure is even lower – less than 6%!
Therefore, in order to defeat the disease, it is necessary to have knowledge about the causes of its occurrence, manifestations and ways of dealing with it. Increased blood pressure is the main manifestation of arterial hypertension. A single increase in blood pressure after emotional stress, hard physical work and some other influences does not mean that arterial hypertension has developed. Only with a steady and prolonged increase in blood pressure, doctors talk about the disease of arterial hypertension. Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease.
Blood pressure is characterized by two indicators:
Upper – systolic pressure is determined by the effort with which, when the heart contracts, the blood presses on the walls of large arteries.
Lower – diastolic blood pressure corresponds to the relaxation of the heart, when the blood pressure inside the arteries decreases.
Signs of arterial hypertension
The presence of arterial hypertension is evidenced by the level of arterial pressure over 140/90 mm Hg.
These limits apply to adults of both sexes. In the majority of patients (90-95%), arterial hypertension is a primary disease, which is called “essential hypertension” in our country, and is called “essential hypertension” abroad.
In hypertension, an increase in blood pressure is not associated with primary damage to any organs. An important role in the development of hypertension is assigned to the overstrain of the main nervous processes. Hypertension is a chronic disease. A prolonged increase in blood pressure as a result of complex changes in the body leads to a dysregulation of the heart and an increase in the thickness of vascular smooth muscles, their spasm, which in turn leads to malnutrition of such important organs as the brain, heart and kidneys.
According to the level of blood pressure (BP), 3 degrees of hypertension are distinguished:
Grade 1 (mild hypertension) – BP 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg Art.
Grade 2 (moderate) – BP 160-179 / 100-109 mm. rt. Art.
Grade 3 (severe) – BP equal to or exceeding 180/110 mm. rt. Art.
Often, at 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease.
1 degree of hypertension, also called “mild” form, is by no means harmless. This form of the disease is the most common: about 70% of patients suffer from it, and it is in such patients that the risk of developing cerebral strokes increases 2-4 times compared to the risk in people with normal blood pressure.
Therefore, the attitude to 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension should be vigilant and no less serious than to 3 degrees.
Often, at 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease, do not know what subjective sensations should be paid attention to. The disease gradually progresses. At first, there is only a tendency to increase blood pressure, its increase may be unstable, but over time, if the disease is not treated, blood pressure becomes very stable and causes severe disturbances in the state of internal organs.
As already mentioned, the most common cause of arterial hypertension is hypertension. However, in some patients, arterial hypertension is a consequence of a disease of a number of organs, i.e. an increase in blood pressure is a secondary manifestation against the background of initial damage to the kidneys (for example, with their inflammation), arteries supplying the kidneys (with their narrowing), as well as with dysfunction of some endocrine organs (adrenal glands, thyroid gland). This form of arterial hypertension is called symptomatic or secondary. Identification of the true cause of the disease and proper treatment in such cases can lead to complete recovery and normalization of blood pressure.
For the timely detection of arterial hypertension, it is necessary to know what its manifestations are, or, as doctors say, the symptoms. The manifestations of the central nervous system and the heart are most characteristic of high blood pressure.
It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur.
Frequent neurotic symptoms are headache, fatigue, nervousness, irritability, and poor sleep.
With a prolonged course of the disease, changes occur in the heart, which are manifested by attacks of pain in the region of the heart, palpitations, disturbances in the rhythm of the heart, shortness of breath. Heart failure develops. It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur, therefore, if they recur, it is imperative to measure blood pressure and consult a doctor.
Headache, usually in the occipital region, often accompanies high blood pressure. In some cases, the severity of the headache increases with the increase in blood pressure. However, it also happens that patients, even with high blood pressure, do not feel a headache and feel well, which makes it difficult to identify the disease. It depends on the characteristics of the psychological makeup of the person and on the gradual adaptation to the disease.
Therefore, you should be attentive to your feelings, but you cannot rely only on them: regular visits to a doctor and blood pressure control will allow you to identify arterial hypertension in time.