Vitamin B12 – supplements and doses for selected diseases

Vitamin B12 – supplements and doses for selected diseases

prophylaxis: 10-100 mcg/day in the form of cyanocobalamin;
older people over 60 years old – 50-100 mcg / day with other B vitamins (B2, B6 and folic acid);
old age, memory impairment, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease: 500-1000 mcg/day with other B vitamins (B2, B6 and folic acid);
antacids: 50-500 mcg/day;
cardiovascular disease: 500-1000 mcg/day;
intestinal diseases: 1000 mcg / day for 3-4 months;
depression: 500-1000 mcg/day with other B vitamins (B2, B6 and folic acid);
elevated homocysteine: 100-1000 mcg/day with other B vitamins (B2, B6 and folic acid);
neuropathy: 500-1500 mcg / day, then 500-1000 mcg / day 1-3 times a week.

Synthetic cyanocobalamin, which is the most common form found in medications and supplements, is the inactive form of vitamin B12. Methylcobalamin, the active form of the coenzyme, is believed to be better metabolized and stored in the liver than cyanocobalamin.
Methylcobalamin has also been shown to be more effective in lowering homocysteine ​​and uremia (kidney damage) than cyanocobalamin. The latest form available on the market is hydroxocobalamin, such as a depot with complex action. There are reports that taking the vitamin in this form and at a dose of 100 mcg shows a longer effect than cyanocobalamin.
Vitamin B12 as well as https://pillintrip.com/medicine/mucosolvan-sirop is best taken with meals or between meals, it is best to divide the daily dose into several smaller ones and take it throughout the day.
For older people or people with gastric disorders, it is better to administer intramuscularly, this will provide a better bioavailability of this vitamin. In the case of vitamin B12 toxicity, no side effects associated with cyanocobalamin have been demonstrated, even with long-term use. It is because of its low toxicity that the Food and Nutrition Board has not set an upper tolerable intake level.

Are dependencies inherited

Are dependencies inherited

Very often we hear talk that if parents drink, smoke or use drugs, then their children will definitely grow up as alcoholics, smokers or drug addicts. Are they really doomed? Let’s figure it out.

Alcoholism, smoking and other common harmful addictions poison the lives of many. And now we are not talking about thousands of people who once embarked on the wrong path or https://pillintrip.com/ru/medicine/eliquis, but rather about those who become involuntary witnesses of the breakdown of a person as an integral personality – the people around them. Addictions not only kill us, making us slaves to cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and the like, but also destroy families, friendships and careers. Why did alcoholism and drug addiction spread so quickly? Could it be that addictions are passed on to children from a father or mother with genes? Let’s take a look at each problem separately. Let’s start with alcoholism. If the parents had such a problem, then it will naturally affect the child. But at the genetic level, it is not the “alcoholism” disease itself that is transferred, but a certain predisposition to it, that is, the child himself will not reach for alcohol, but if he tries it, he is very likely to repeat the fate of his parents. Such children will have high levels of alcohol dehydrogenase in their blood, an enzyme that will block vomiting reflexes and break down alcohol that enters the liver. This will also help to weaken the person’s psychological resistance to alcohol. However, it is worth remembering that with proper upbringing and strong will of the parents, the child is less threatened, because in a normal family the child will take a positive example from his parents. Tobacco smoking. When you inherit a smoking habit, much the same thing happens. The child receives “as a gift” not a desire to smoke, but a predisposition to develop dependence on tobacco, as well as the likelihood of lung cancer. But it is worth remembering that with due endurance and concentration of the child’s parents, nothing will threaten him. For many years, statistics were collected on the impact of parents on their children, and this is what was revealed: the development of a habit in a daughter is more influenced by the presence of dependence on the mother than on the father. For sons, everything is exactly the opposite. With all this, the effect of the mother on the daughter is stronger than that of the father on the son. Drug addict. Very similar consequences are observed in those whose parents used drugs. These children are more likely to become drug addicts. These children have frequent sleep interruptions, mental problems and other developmental disorders. However, it is worth remembering that with proper control from the parents – both themselves and the child, it will be possible to make sure that their child does not even try illegal drugs, and, therefore, dependence cannot develop, even with his increased predisposition. So, in addition to all the problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs that were mentioned earlier, there are other unpleasant things: an increase in the likelihood of stillbirth, the development of birth defects and pathologies, and much, much more. Therefore, it is better to immediately think about your children and not succumb to these bad habits. Remember: the health of your children is more important than all bad habits!

Arterial hypertension: how to recognize it?

Arterial hypertension: how to recognize it?

Arterial hypertension is a widespread disease in the world. In Russia, over 40% of men and women suffer from arterial hypertension. Mortality from complications of arterial hypertension is increasing. Thus, in Russia, morbidity and mortality from such a formidable complication of arterial hypertension as cerebral stroke remain one of the highest in the world. At the same time, the awareness of our patients about the symptoms and complications of this disease and sustagen is insufficient for its early detection.

Insufficient awareness of arterial hypertension leads to an underestimation of the severity of this disease, to low referral to doctors for help at an early stage of the disease, when serious complications can still be avoided. All this together, unfortunately, leads to insufficiently effective treatment: it is possible to normalize the level of blood pressure only in 17% of women suffering from this disease, and in men this figure is even lower – less than 6%!

Therefore, in order to defeat the disease, it is necessary to have knowledge about the causes of its occurrence, manifestations and ways of dealing with it. Increased blood pressure is the main manifestation of arterial hypertension. A single increase in blood pressure after emotional stress, hard physical work and some other influences does not mean that arterial hypertension has developed. Only with a steady and prolonged increase in blood pressure, doctors talk about the disease of arterial hypertension. Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease.

Blood pressure is characterized by two indicators:

Upper – systolic pressure is determined by the effort with which, when the heart contracts, the blood presses on the walls of large arteries.

Lower – diastolic blood pressure corresponds to the relaxation of the heart, when the blood pressure inside the arteries decreases.

Signs of arterial hypertension
The presence of arterial hypertension is evidenced by the level of arterial pressure over 140/90 mm Hg.

These limits apply to adults of both sexes. In the majority of patients (90-95%), arterial hypertension is a primary disease, which is called “essential hypertension” in our country, and is called “essential hypertension” abroad.

In hypertension, an increase in blood pressure is not associated with primary damage to any organs. An important role in the development of hypertension is assigned to the overstrain of the main nervous processes. Hypertension is a chronic disease. A prolonged increase in blood pressure as a result of complex changes in the body leads to a dysregulation of the heart and an increase in the thickness of vascular smooth muscles, their spasm, which in turn leads to malnutrition of such important organs as the brain, heart and kidneys.

According to the level of blood pressure (BP), 3 degrees of hypertension are distinguished:

Grade 1 (mild hypertension) – BP 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg Art.
Grade 2 (moderate) – BP 160-179 / 100-109 mm. rt. Art.
Grade 3 (severe) – BP equal to or exceeding 180/110 mm. rt. Art.
Often, at 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease.

1 degree of hypertension, also called “mild” form, is by no means harmless. This form of the disease is the most common: about 70% of patients suffer from it, and it is in such patients that the risk of developing cerebral strokes increases 2-4 times compared to the risk in people with normal blood pressure.

Therefore, the attitude to 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension should be vigilant and no less serious than to 3 degrees.

Often, at 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease, do not know what subjective sensations should be paid attention to. The disease gradually progresses. At first, there is only a tendency to increase blood pressure, its increase may be unstable, but over time, if the disease is not treated, blood pressure becomes very stable and causes severe disturbances in the state of internal organs.

Blood pressure measuring. Doctor and patient. Health care.

As already mentioned, the most common cause of arterial hypertension is hypertension. However, in some patients, arterial hypertension is a consequence of a disease of a number of organs, i.e. an increase in blood pressure is a secondary manifestation against the background of initial damage to the kidneys (for example, with their inflammation), arteries supplying the kidneys (with their narrowing), as well as with dysfunction of some endocrine organs (adrenal glands, thyroid gland). This form of arterial hypertension is called symptomatic or secondary. Identification of the true cause of the disease and proper treatment in such cases can lead to complete recovery and normalization of blood pressure.

For the timely detection of arterial hypertension, it is necessary to know what its manifestations are, or, as doctors say, the symptoms. The manifestations of the central nervous system and the heart are most characteristic of high blood pressure.

It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur.
Frequent neurotic symptoms are headache, fatigue, nervousness, irritability, and poor sleep.

With a prolonged course of the disease, changes occur in the heart, which are manifested by attacks of pain in the region of the heart, palpitations, disturbances in the rhythm of the heart, shortness of breath. Heart failure develops. It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur, therefore, if they recur, it is imperative to measure blood pressure and consult a doctor.

Headache, usually in the occipital region, often accompanies high blood pressure. In some cases, the severity of the headache increases with the increase in blood pressure. However, it also happens that patients, even with high blood pressure, do not feel a headache and feel well, which makes it difficult to identify the disease. It depends on the characteristics of the psychological makeup of the person and on the gradual adaptation to the disease.

Therefore, you should be attentive to your feelings, but you cannot rely only on them: regular visits to a doctor and blood pressure control will allow you to identify arterial hypertension in time.

Stress

Stress

Stress is a nonspecific (abnormal) state or the body’s response to various adverse factors (stressors) affecting it. Small stressful situations are necessary for a person, as they play an important role in further favorable changes in the life of the person himself. This is due to the release of adrenaline into the human bloodstream during a stressful situation, as well as other biochemical reactions that contribute to a person solving a particular task. In addition to its positive effects, stress can also contribute to negative consequences. When a person is constantly exposed to stressful situations, his or her body wastes its strength (energy), which leads to its rapid exhaustion. Since all the organs are under stress, they are more susceptible to secondary adverse factors, such as disease. Thus scientists have established two main types of stress – eustress (positive stress) and distress (negative stress). For stress management sometimes prescribed: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/xanax-retard.

Causes of stress

There are a great many causes of stress, as each person has their own individual body, psyche, way of life, therefore, one and the same factor on one person may not affect at all, or produce a minor effect, while another person literally gets sick, for example – a conflict with another person. The most popular causes and/or factors of stress are:

A conflict situation with another person – at work, at home, with friends, or with strangers altogether, a fight;
dissatisfaction – with their appearance, people around them, success at work, self-realization in the world, the environment (home, work), standard of living;
a small living wage, lack of money, debts;
a long absence of vacation and proper rest from daily affairs, everyday life;
routine life with little or no positive emotions, changes;
long-term chronic diseases, especially affecting the appearance, as well as diseases of relatives
overweight;
death of a relative or just a close or familiar person;
lack of vitamins and trace elements in the body;
watching heartwarming movies or, on the contrary, horror movies;
problems in sexual life;
frequent fears, especially of deadly diseases (cancer), the opinion of other people, old age, a small pension;
loneliness;
excessive physical activity, or adverse environmental conditions (cold, heat, rainy weather, high or low atmospheric pressure)
sudden change of environment – moving to another place of residence, change of job;
heavy music;
other reasons or situations that can catch or irritate a person.
Symptoms of stress

Among the most popular reactions of the body to stress, are:

Unreasonable and frequent attacks of irritability, anger, dissatisfaction with the people around the person, the environment, the world;
lethargy, weakness, depression, passive attitude and unwillingness to communicate with people, even with family and friends, rapid fatigue, unwillingness to do anything
insomnia, restless sleep;
inability to relax, constant tension of the nervous system, the physical body
attacks of fear, panic;
poor concentration of attention, lethargy, difficulty in understanding ordinary things, reduced intellectual capacity, memory problems, stuttering;
lack of confidence in oneself and others, fidgeting;
frequent desire to cry and sob, longing, self-pity;

Lack of desire to eat food, or, on the contrary, an excessive desire to eat;
nervous tics, unspecific desire to bite nails, bite lips
increased sweating, increased excitability, digestive system disorders (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting), skin itching, headache, dizziness, palpitations, chest discomfort, breathing problems, choking sensations, spikes in body temperature, chills, numbness or tingling in the extremities
– Increased interest in alcohol, drugs, smoking, computer games and other things that previously the person was not particularly interested in.
Phases of stress

The development of stress occurs in three phases:

Mobilization. The body responds to the stressor with anxiety and mobilizes its defenses and resources to confront the stressor.
Confrontation. The body confronts the stressor, the person actively seeks a way out of it.
Exhaustion. When a person is exposed to a stressor for a long time, the body begins to deplete and becomes vulnerable to secondary threats (various diseases).

Acute respiratory diseases

Acute respiratory diseases

WHAT are ARIs and ARIs?
The acronyms acute respiratory diseases (ARI) and acute respiratory viral infections (ARI) for which this medication https://pillintrip.com/medicine/fedac is sometimes used conceal a large group of diseases that mainly affect the upper respiratory tract. To date, 180-200 types of viruses and 40-50 types of bacteria are known to cause acute respiratory infections. Since these diseases are caused by different pathogens and immunity (immunity) is formed for a short time, a person can catch them several times during the year.

HOW does infection occur?
Mostly through airborne droplets when a sick person coughs or sneezes. But in a number of respiratory diseases germs are transmitted through hands, toys and household items. Acute respiratory diseases and acute respiratory viral infections are common in the cold season, which contributes to overcooling (not accidentally these diseases are called colds), vitamin deficiency. The most susceptible to respiratory diseases are children, the elderly and those who have had reduced immunity for various reasons.

HOW does it manifest itself?
The first symptom of acute respiratory infections is nasopharyngitis – runny nose, nasal congestion and frequent sneezing. Once the virus gets on the mucous membranes, it quickly multiplies and virusemia develops, which is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, sore throat, general weakness and loss of appetite. Depending on the type of the virus, symptoms of the disease may be almost nonexistent or cause laryngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, tonsillitis, conjunctivitis, etc.

WHY are respiratory diseases dangerous?
By its complications, which may occur at any time after the disease begins. Most often these are otitis (inflammation of the ear), maxillitis (inflammation of the sinuses), tracheitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea), pneumonia. To avoid complications from the disease, do not delay the start of treatment, do not wait for it to go away on its own – see a doctor.

If there is a sick person in the house!
– Limit communication with the sick person, it is desirable to care for the sick person by one person, avoid that the patient is looked after by a pregnant woman, if possible – put him in a separate room, the patient should observe bed rest.
– At the first symptoms of the disease call the doctor at home, it is necessary to strictly follow all the doctor’s instructions and take medications, especially antiviral, strictly according to the schedule. It is necessary to take a full course of medications, even if it seems that you are already healthy.
– Use disposable handkerchiefs and masks and throw them away immediately after use.
– You should drink more vitaminized fluids, as well as infusions of cranberries, cowberries, which have antipyretic properties.
– Ventilate the room in cold weather 3-4 times a day for 15-20 minutes. It is necessary to monitor the temperature in the room where the patient is. It should not drop below 20°C. Use synthetic detergents and disinfectants for wet cleaning of rooms according to instructions for use.
– All family members should follow hygienic measures – use masks, wash hands often with soap and disinfectants.
– Closely monitor the patient’s condition so that in case of a possible worsening of the condition you can see a doctor in time and get the necessary treatment.

Ferplex-Fol indications

Ferplex-Fol indications

Absolute and relative iron deficiency anemia. Because of insufficient iron intake or malabsorption, acute or chronic blood loss and infection caused by recessive or dominant iron-deficiency anemia, anemia in pregnancy and lactation.

FERPLEX-FOL INTERACTIONS

Can affect the absorption of tetracyclines.

FERPLEX-FOL SIDE EFFECTS

Excessive and likely gastrointestinal disorders.

FERPLEX-FOL CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hemosiderosis, haemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, anemia of iron utilization, chronic pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis.

REVIEWS

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs for Ferplex-Fol are given
The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs for Ferplex-Fol are given

The results of a survey conducted on ndrugs for Ferplex-Fol are given in detail below. The results of the survey conducted are based on the impressions and views of the website users and consumers taking Ferplex-Fol. We implore you to kindly base your medical condition or therapeutic choices on the result or test conducted by a physician or licensed medical practitioners.

User reports

1 consumer reported time for results

To what extent do I have to use Ferplex-Fol before I begin to see changes in my health conditions?
As part of the reports released by ndrugs.com website users, it takes > 3 month and a few days before you notice an improvement in your health conditions.
Please note, it doesn’t mean you will start to notice such health improvement in the same time frame as other users. There are many factors to consider, and we implore you to visit your doctor to know how long before you can see improvements in your health while taking Ferplex-Fol. To get the time effectiveness of using Ferplex-Fol drug by other patients, please click here.

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Pharmacokinetics of the drug Epitomax

Pharmacokinetics of the drug Epitomax

Epitomax is an antiepileptic drug, belongs to the class of sulfate-substituted monosaccharides. It blocks sodium channels and suppresses the occurrence of repetitive action potentials against the background of prolonged depolarization of the neuron membrane. Epitomax increases the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against several subtypes of GABA receptors (including GABA receptors), as well as modulates the activity of GABA receptors themselves, prevents activation of kainate/AMPK (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid)-receptors to glutamate, does not affect N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activity against the NMDA-receptor subtype. These effects of Epitomax are dose-dependent at plasma concentrations of Epitomax of 1 to 200 μmol/L, with minimal activity between 1 and 10 μmol/L.

Pharmacokinetics of the drug Epitomax

In addition, epitomax inhibits the activity of some carboanhydrase isoenzymes (II-IV). Epitomax is significantly inferior to acetazolamide, a known carboanhydrase inhibitor, in terms of the severity of this pharmacological effect, so this effect of Epitomax is not a major component of its antiepileptic activity. After oral administration Epitomax is quickly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability is approximately 81%. After oral administration of 400 mg Epitomax, Cmax of 1.5 µg/ml is reached within 2 h. Food intake has no clinically significant effect on the bioavailability of Epitomax. Cmax after multiple oral doses of 100 mg of Epitomax twice a day averaged 6.76 mcg/ml.

The pharmacokinetics of Epitomax is linear, plasma clearance remains constant, and the area under the “concentration-time curve” (AUC) in the dose range from 100 to 400 mg increases in proportion to the dose. The plasma protein binding for Epitomax is 13-17% in the plasma concentration range of 0.5-250.0 µg/ml. After a single dose of up to 1200 mg, the average Vd is 0.55-0.8 L/kg. The Vd value depends on gender: in women it is about 50% of the values observed in men, which is associated with a higher content of adipose tissue in women.

Pharmacokinetics of the drug Epitomax

Cssmax when taking Epitomax in patients with normal renal function is reached in 4-8 days. It penetrates into breast milk and through the placental barrier. After oral administration, about 20% of the administered dose is metabolized. It is metabolized by hydroxylation, hydrolysis and glucuronidation. However, in patients receiving concomitant therapy with antiepileptic drugs, which are inducers of microsomal enzymes, the metabolism of Epitomax was increased up to 50%. Six virtually inactive metabolites were isolated and identified from blood plasma, urine, and feces. When concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme inducers, the metabolism of epitomax was up to 50%.

The main route of excretion of unchanged topiramate (about 70%) and its metabolites is the kidneys. After oral administration, the plasma clearance of topiramate was 20-30 ml/min. After multiple oral doses of 50 and 100 mg twice daily, the plasma elimination half-life (T1/2) of topiramate averages 21 hours. It is eliminated from plasma by hemodialysis.

Pharmacokinetics in special clinical cases. Renal and plasma clearance of Epitomax in mild renal failure (creatinine clearance more than 70 ml/min) is not changed. In moderate renal failure (creatinine clearance 30-69 ml/min) renal and plasma clearance of epitomax is decreased by 42%, and in severe renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min) renal and plasma clearance of epitomax is reduced by 54% or more.

Questions and answers about a vaccine that will defeat AIDS

Questions and answers about a vaccine that will defeat AIDS

There are many drugs that are used in the fight against HIV. But one that has not yet been invented to cure the human immunodeficiency virus. How is HIV being treated today? What are the results of treatment? Let’s get to the bottom of it.

For many years, scientists have been looking for a drug that will completely cure HIV, AIDS. Why has it not been possible so far to come up with such a cure?

Questions and answers about a vaccine that will defeat AIDS

It is because the virus is embedded in a human cell’s genome, and it is extremely difficult to beat this information about it, recorded in the cell’s genome. So far, unfortunately, there is no such radical remedy that would remove the virus completely. Of course, there is a search underway. New ideas are emerging. Perhaps you have heard of the “Berlin patient”? There are people who are not infected with HIV. They do not have CCR5 receptors and the virus has nowhere to attach itself. The “Berlin patient” was treated for HIV, but had leukemia. He needed a bone marrow transplant and was selected to have a donor who did not have CCR5 receptors. Then, after the bone marrow transplant, HIV in the “Berlin patient” was no longer defined… The scientists’ idea went in the direction that it may be possible to artificially create a mutation of the CCR5 receptor… Many different ideas exist. And I think that humanity will eventually solve this problem, find a cure that will defeat HIV. It is a matter of time…

There is no miracle vaccine, but nevertheless, HIV-positive people can lead normal lives. Thanks to what drugs, what kind of treatment?

The turning year for HIV treatment is 1996. That’s when antiretroviral drugs, so-called protease inhibitors, appeared. And the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) began. Whereas previously it was said that HIV was a disease that would surely lead to death, today it is a chronic managed infection. That is, with antiretroviral drugs in our hands, we can make sure that the virus stops multiplying in our bodies (it kind of “falls asleep”). Thanks to this, human immunity is restored (because the virus does not affect new cells in the immune system that are produced daily in the body). And if before antiretroviral therapy appeared, the average life expectancy of an HIV-positive person was about 11 years from the moment of infection, now a patient with HIV can live as long as an average person lives.

To live this long, what rules must be followed?

Questions and answers about a vaccine that will defeat AIDS

There are people who were diagnosed, for example, in 2000, and they have not been seen by doctors after that. And today they come to us in a very serious condition, some of us do not even have time to help. There are no miracles. The most important thing for a person diagnosed with HIV is to be observed and treated on time, and to take antiretroviral therapy. Nowadays, most physicians tend to think that therapy should start as soon as possible. Because we know from both our own experience and from foreign scientific information that the longer a person is immune deficient (although he or she may be feeling well), the faster he or she will develop HIV infection, and it is possible that he or she may later have other sore spots like cancer….

Antiretroviral drugs are said to have many side effects. How dangerous are they and in what cases?

Of course, antiretroviral drugs are not caramel… The side effects can be divided into early and late side effects. Early effects occur during the first six weeks of taking the drugs. These side effects are usually divided into two types: those that need to be waited and they will pass (for example, nausea – the first month nausea, then passes; there is an allergic rash, which also passes with time), and severe – when the drug does not fit the person. Moreover, often the side effects are genetically programmed. For example, some patients have a reaction of hypersensitivity to abacavir… These are early side effects. The rule here is: in no case at the beginning of therapy do not break away from the doctor, do not go anywhere, so that the doctor holds what is called a hand on pulse. He will immediately determine if these side effects are not life threatening. Then it will be possible to calm the patient, to wait for these effects.

If the side effects are life-threatening (for example, the patient has a sharp decrease in hemoglobin in the blood), then it is necessary to change drugs?

As for late side effects… Here, the most important thing is to be well observed. A person should take tests on time and have an instrumental examination. The doctor will see and prevent these side effects, will change the regimen of taking medication.

And if you do not take the therapy, let the disease go, as they say, on its own?

Then, the disease will progress. 80% of patients who are not on therapy, live on average 11 years. About 15% may live more. And there are patients who “burn” just 3 years after infection… The duration of the disease depends on both the aggressiveness of the virus and the person.

HVTN 702 HIV vaccine clinical trials

HVTN 702 HIV vaccine clinical trials

HIV is the acronym for human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that affects the immune system. HIV lives and multiplies only in the human body. Most people do not experience any feelings when they are infected with HIV. Sometimes a flu-like condition develops a few weeks after infection (fever, skin rashes, increased lymph nodes, diarrhea). For many years after infection, the person may feel healthy. This period is called the hidden (latent) stage of the disease. However, it is wrong to think that at this time nothing happens in the body. When a pathogen, including HIV, enters the body, the immune system forms an immune response. It tries to neutralize the pathogen and destroy it. For this purpose, the immune system produces antibodies. The antibodies bind the pathogen and help to destroy it. In addition, special white blood cells (lymphocytes) also begin to fight the pathogen. Unfortunately, all this is not enough in the fight against HIV – the immune system cannot neutralize HIV, and HIV, in turn, gradually destroys the immune system. Just because a person has contracted the virus, i.e. has become HIV-positive, does not mean that he or she has AIDS. It usually takes a long time (10-12 years on average) before AIDS develops.

AIDS

HVTN 702 HIV vaccine clinical trials

The virus gradually destroys the immune system, reducing the body’s resistance to infections. At some point, the body’s resistance becomes so low that a person may develop such infectious diseases that other people have little or no disease. These diseases are called “opportunistic” diseases. AIDS is talked about when a person infected with HIV develops infectious diseases due to an ineffective immune system destroyed by the virus.
AIDS is the last stage of HIV infection.
AIDS is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
The syndrome is a stable combination of several signs of disease (symptoms).
Purchased – means that the disease is not congenital, it has developed over a lifetime.
Immunodeficiency is a condition in which the body can not resist various infections.

Clinical trials of HVTN 702 HIV vaccine have been stopped

HVTN 702 HIV vaccine clinical trials

GENEVA, February 4, 2020. – The U.S. National Institutes of Health have announced the end of clinical trials for HVTN 702 HIV vaccine. Although the trials did not identify any health risk for the vaccine, an independent data monitoring committee said the vaccine’s effectiveness in preventing HIV transmission was not confirmed.

Over 5,400 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-35 years participated in trials at 14 sites in South Africa over 18 months. Six injections of vaccine or placebo were given to participants over a period of six months. An analysis conducted after at least 60% of participants were surveyed for more than 18 months found that 129 of those who were injected had been infected with the virus, compared to 123 of placebo participants.

“Although we are definitely disappointed with the result, we have gained important scientific knowledge that can be used in future trials. I thank the research team for conducting this important vaccine trial,” said Vinnie Byanima, UNAIDS Executive Director.

Extensive testing of other promising vaccines is currently underway – Mosaico clinical trials, which test the vaccine among transgender, gay, and other men who practice same-sex relationships in the Americas and Europe, and Imbokodo clinical trials among women in sub-Saharan Africa. An effective HIV vaccine may be key to sustainable progress in the future HIV response.

Despite significant investment in prevention during trials, women participating in trials have experienced HIV infection rates of approximately 4% per year. This is too much. HIV transmission is preventable. This requires the right combination of interventions, including HIV testing; antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV; pre-exposure prophylaxis; condoms and other protective equipment; sexual and reproductive health care, including comprehensive sexuality education; ensuring girls’ continued education; and removing social, legal, and economic barriers to women and girls.

HIV/AIDS vaccine: why hasn’t it been invented so far?

HIV/AIDS vaccine: why hasn’t it been invented so far?

December 1 – World AIDS Day. Almost half a century ago, the human immunodeficiency virus HIV/AIDS was discovered, but there is still no vaccine against it. Why not?

Just a few months after the world learned about the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, many promising candidate vaccines appeared. It is hoped that next year, and maybe this year too, the world will receive its first coronavirus vaccine. Meanwhile, there is still no vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS), which was detected about 40 years ago. Why not? The answer is simple: the human immunodeficiency virus is a chameleon among all other viruses, it is constantly changing, mutating, which negates all attempts by scientists to create an HIV vaccine.

What does the human immunodeficiency virus look like?

HIV/AIDS vaccine: why hasn't it been invented so far?

Human immunodeficiency virus has a complex three-dimensional surface structure, with half of it covered with a sugar shell, glycolized, as scientists say. It is glycolized surfaces that block the vaccine action.
Had HIV behaved like other viruses, this would have made it much easier for the vaccine developer. But the human immunodeficiency virus is constantly and very quickly changing its envelope. To defeat this virus, the immune system has to recognize it, but its rapid mutation means that the immunity does not see it as a danger.
The human immunodeficiency virus belongs to the retrovirus group. They have the ability to store their DNA gene in a human cell. Scientists have been trying for years to understand how retroviruses multiply in order to develop a strategy to combat them. But so far, to no avail.

Which vaccines are being developed against HIV

HIV/AIDS vaccine: why hasn't it been invented so far?

The development of a vaccine called HVTN 7026, which began in 2016 in South Africa, was very promising. 5407 HIV-negative people aged 18 to 35 years participated in the vaccine’s trials. The vaccine used the Prime Boost method, in which two vaccines were combined. With the first (Prime) vaccine, a person received a different serum than with the second (Boost) vaccine. Thus, the chances for the immune system should have doubled, but this did not happen.
The basis for HVTN 7026 was the RV 144 vaccine. It is the only serum that showed a rather modest 31 percent efficacy level during the trials in Thailand. It is true that this vaccine can only protect a person from the virus for a few months. In February 2020, its trials were interrupted because there was no obvious success.
The next attempt to develop an HIV/AIDS vaccine was Project MOSAICO. It was also based on the method of combining the two vaccines. MOSAICO vaccine was tested on monkeys and the results were promising. With this vaccine, the risk of HIV/AIDS infection in 90 percent of cases could have been reduced. Since late 2019, the United States has been running clinical trials with this vaccine. 3,800 people are participating in it.
A third vaccine is being developed under the name IMBOKODO. Its trials involve 2,600 people from various African countries. The effectiveness of the vaccine is still 67 percent. Its trials will end in February 2022.
So far, scientists are confident that any vaccine developed will not provide 100 percent protection against HIV. But a vaccine that provides 60 to 70 percent protection would be considered a success. Until then, the only option left is to treat HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral drugs.

Why pre-exposure prophylaxis is important

Since a vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus has not yet been invented, high hopes are placed on HIV/AIDS drug prevention, the so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, which is a preventive measure to prevent HIV transmission carried out by an HIV-negative partner. Currently, scientists are looking for an alternative to the pills that need to be taken every day. This includes injections or implants, which contribute to the accumulation of the necessary preparation against the virus in the body.